Since 1939, it has been compulsory to have third party personal insurance before keeping a motor vehicle in all federal states of Germany.[2] In addition, every vehicle owner is free to take out a comprehensive insurance policy. All types of car insurance are provided by several private insurers. The amount of insurance contribution is determined by several criteria, like the region, the type of car or the personal way of driving.[14]


On 1 March 2011, the European Court of Justice decided insurance companies who used gender as a risk factor when calculating insurance premiums were breaching EU equality laws.[42] The Court ruled that car-insurance companies were discriminating against men.[42] However, in some places, such as the UK, companies have used the standard practice of discrimination based on profession to still use gender as a factor, albeit indirectly. Professions which are more typically practised by men are deemed as being more risky even if they had not been prior to the Court's ruling while the converse is applied to professions predominant among women.[43] Another effect of the ruling has been that, while the premiums for men have been lowered, they have been raised for women. This equalisation effect has also been seen in other types of insurance for individuals, such as life insurance.[44]
When the premium is not mandated by the government, it is usually derived from the calculations of an actuary, based on statistical data. The premium can vary depending on many factors that are believed to affect the expected cost of future claims.[38] Those factors can include the car characteristics, the coverage selected (deductible, limit, covered perils), the profile of the driver (age, gender, driving history) and the usage of the car (commute to work or not, predicted annual distance driven).[39]
Road Traffic Act Only Insurance differs from Third Party Only Insurance (detailed below) and is not often sold, unless to underpin, for example, a corporate body wishing to self-insure above the requirements of the Act. It provides the very minimum cover to satisfy the requirements of the Act. Road Traffic Act Only Insurance has a limit of £1,000,000 for damage to third party property, while third party only insurance typically has a greater limit for third party property damage.

The minimum coverage defined by German law for car liability insurance / third party personal insurance is €7,500,000 for bodily injury (damage to people), €500,000 euro for property damage and €50,000 for financial/fortune loss which is in no direct or indirect coherence with bodily injury or property damage.[15] Insurance companies usually offer all-in/combined single limit insurances of €50,000,000 or €100,000,000 (about €141,000,000) for bodily injury, property damage and other financial/fortune loss (usually with a bodily injury coverage limitation of €8-15,000,000 for each bodily injured person).


Direct Line general insurance policies are underwritten by U K Insurance Limited. Registered office: The Wharf, Neville Street, Leeds LS1 4AZ Registered in England and Wales No.1179980. U K Insurance Limited is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority. Registration number 202810. The Financial Services Register can be accessed through www.fca.org.uk.
Car Insurance: Car Insurance gives coverage against accidental loss or damages to own car or to a third party. While choosing a car insurance policy, a person should always compare premium offered by various insurers to ensure that he got the best deal. The amount of premium would depend on the make & value of car, state from where it is registered and manufacturing year. 
It is an offence to use a motor vehicle, or allow others to use it without insurance that satisfies the requirements of the Act. This requirement applies while any part of a vehicle (even if a greater part of it is on private land) is on the public highway. No such legislation applies on private land. However, private land to which the public have a reasonable right of access (for example, a supermarket car park during opening hours) is considered to be included within the requirements of the Act.
The use of non-intrusive load monitoring to detect drunk driving and other risky behaviors has been proposed.[57] A US patent application combining this technology with a usage based insurance product to create a new type of behavior based auto insurance product is currently open for public comment on peer to patent.[58] See Behavior-based safety. Behaviour based Insurance focusing upon driving is often called Telematics or Telematics2.0 in some cases monitoring focus upon behavioural analysis such as smooth driving.
NCB is provided to the policyholder and not to the insured automobile. At the time of the vehicle transfer, the insurance plan could be transferred to a new owner but NCB can’t be transferred. The responsibility of paying the remaining balance falls on the shoulders of the new buyer. The original/former owner of the vehicle can use the NCB  at the time of purchase of a new automobile.

The sum insured for the automobile is Insured’s Declared Value. It reflects the present market value of the automobile. If you buy a third party insurance, you get covered against third-party liability specifically. The offered coverage is unlimited for the third-party’s injury and the offered coverage is of Rs. 7, 50,000 for third-party’s property damage.


Auto insurance in India is a compulsory requirement for all new vehicles used whether for commercial or personal use. The insurance companies have tie-ups with leading automobile manufacturers. They offer their customers instant auto quotes. Auto premium is determined by a number of factors and the amount of premium increases with the rise in the price of the vehicle. The claims of the auto insurance in India can be accidental, theft claims or third party claims. Certain documents are required for claiming auto insurance in India, like duly signed claim form, RC copy of the vehicle, driving license copy, FIR copy, original estimate and policy copy.
In Norway, the vehicle owner must provide the minimum of liability insurance for his/her vehicle(s) – of any kind. Otherwise, the vehicle is illegal to use. If a person drives a vehicle belonging to someone else, and has an accident, the insurance will cover for damage done. Note that the policy carrier can choose to limit the coverage to only apply for family members or person over a certain age.
*The multi car insurance comparison service is provided by money.co.uk, which is a trading name of Dot Zinc Limited, registered in England (4093922) and authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (415689). Registered address: The Cooperage, 5 Copper Row, London, England, SE1 2LH. By using this system you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions and Privacy policy
Insurance companies have started using credit ratings of their policyholders to determine risk. Drivers with good credit scores get lower insurance premiums, as it is believed that they are more financially stable, more responsible and have the financial means to better maintain their vehicles. Those with lower credit scores can have their premiums raised or insurance canceled outright.[55] It has been shown that good drivers with spotty credit records could be charged higher premiums than bad drivers with good credit records.[56]
More commonly purchased is third party, fire and theft. This covers all third party liabilities and also covers the vehicle owner against the destruction of the vehicle by fire (whether malicious or due to a vehicle fault) and theft of the insured vehicle. It may or may not cover vandalism. This kind of insurance and the two preceding types do not cover damage to the vehicle caused by the driver or other hazards.
Private Car Insurance – Private Car Insurance is the fastest growing sector in India as it is compulsory for all the new cars. The amount of premium depends on the make and value of the car, state where the car is registered and the year of manufacture. This amount can be reduced by asking the insurer for No Claim Bonus (NCB) if no claim is made for insurance in previous year.[20]

In most U.S. states, moving violations, including running red lights and speeding, assess points on a driver's driving record. Since more points indicate an increased risk of future violations, insurance companies periodically review drivers' records, and may raise premiums accordingly. Rating practices, such as debit for a poor driving history, are not dictated by law. Many insurers allow one moving violation every three to five years before increasing premiums. Accidents affect insurance premiums similarly. Depending on the severity of the accident and the number of points assessed, rates can increase by as much as twenty to thirty percent.[46] Any motoring convictions should be disclosed to insurers, as the driver is assessed by risk from prior experiences while driving on the road.

On 1 March 2011, the European Court of Justice decided insurance companies who used gender as a risk factor when calculating insurance premiums were breaching EU equality laws.[42] The Court ruled that car-insurance companies were discriminating against men.[42] However, in some places, such as the UK, companies have used the standard practice of discrimination based on profession to still use gender as a factor, albeit indirectly. Professions which are more typically practised by men are deemed as being more risky even if they had not been prior to the Court's ruling while the converse is applied to professions predominant among women.[43] Another effect of the ruling has been that, while the premiums for men have been lowered, they have been raised for women. This equalisation effect has also been seen in other types of insurance for individuals, such as life insurance.[44]

*The multi car insurance comparison service is provided by money.co.uk, which is a trading name of Dot Zinc Limited, registered in England (4093922) and authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (415689). Registered address: The Cooperage, 5 Copper Row, London, England, SE1 2LH. By using this system you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions and Privacy policy
Claims on multi car policies are usually dealt with similarly to single car policies. All multi car policies are different so it’s important to check with your insurer, but the best multi car insurance policies will not penalise one driver if another makes a claim. If someone else on the policy makes a claim, for example if your partner makes a claim on their car, your no claims bonus will not be affected.
You might have a roommate or family member on your policy that no longer drives your vehicles. Or maybe you have a vehicle on your policy that is no longer being driven. Making sure driver and vehicle information is up to date may save you money. Keep in mind, if you do go down to just one car on your policy, you will lose the multi-vehicle discount.

In South Australia, since July 2016, CTP is no longer provided by the Motor Accident Commission.The government has now licensed four private insurers - AAMI, Allianz, QBE and SGIC, to offer CTP insurance SA. The scheme allocates one provider for 3 years as part of vehicle registration. After July 2019, vehicle owners can choose a different CTP insurer and new insurers may also enter the market. [6]
Driving without the necessary insurance for that vehicle is an offence that can be prosecuted by the police and fines range from 841 to 3,287 euros. Police forces also have the power to seize a vehicle that does not have the necessary insurance in place, until the owner of the vehicle pays a fine and signs a new insurance policy. The same provision is applied when the vehicle is standing on a public road.
To initiate the process, insured is required to submit a detailed estimate of loss to the insurance company. Independent automobile surveyors with engineering background are given the task of assessing the reason and extent of loss. They carefully inspect the damaged vehicle and submit their survey report with the insurance company who will review and examine it in accordance with the recommendations mentioned therein The usual practice is to authorize repairs with the repairer to whom letter is issued in this regard.

Cents Per Mile Now[48] (1986) advocates classified odometer-mile rates, a type of usage-based insurance. After the company's risk factors have been applied, and the customer has accepted the per-mile rate offered, then customers buy prepaid miles of insurance protection as needed, like buying gallons of gasoline (litres of petrol). Insurance automatically ends when the odometer limit (recorded on the car's insurance ID card) is reached, unless more distance is bought. Customers keep track of miles on their own odometer to know when to buy more. The company does no after-the-fact billing of the customer, and the customer doesn't have to estimate a "future annual mileage" figure for the company to obtain a discount. In the event of a traffic stop, an officer could easily verify that the insurance is current, by comparing the figure on the insurance card to that on the odometer.
Insurance is a fact of everyday life. If you want to own a car, a home, or a business, or simply want to protect your family’s health, you need to be—and in some cases, have to be—insured. Getting coverage can sometimes become an overwhelming and confusing process, and sometimes an expensive one, but it doesn’t have to be. NetQuote provides you not only with the ability to compare quotes, but also with the information you need to make the process easier.
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